Precise determination of graphene functionalization by in situ Raman spectroscopy

Philipp Vecera, Julio C. Chacón-Torres, Thomas Pichler, Stephanie Reich, Himadri R. Soni, Andreas Görling, Konstantin Edelthalhammer, Herwig Peterlik, Frank Hauke, Andreas Hirsch

The verification of a successful covalent functionalization of graphene and related carbon allotropes can easily be carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the unequivocal assignment and resolution of individual lattice modes associated with the covalent binding of addends was elusive up to now. Here we present an in situ Raman study of a controlled functionalization of potassium intercalated graphite, revealing several new bands appearing in the D-region of the spectrum. The evolution of these bands with increasing degree of functionalization from low to moderate levels provides a basis for the deconvolution of the different components towards quantifying the extent of functionalization. By complementary DFT calculations we were able to identify the vibrational changes in the close proximity of the addend bearing lattice carbon atoms and to assign them to specific Raman modes. The experimental in situ observation of the developing functionalization along with the reoxidation of the intercalated graphite represents an important step towards an improved understanding of the chemistry of graphene.

Electronic Properties of Materials, Dynamics of Condensed Systems
External organisation(s)
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Freie Universität Berlin (FU), Yachay Tech University
Nature Communications
No. of pages
Publication date
Peer reviewed
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
104026 Spectroscopy, 103018 Materials physics, 103009 Solid state physics, 103020 Surface physics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
Chemistry(all), Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all), Physics and Astronomy(all)
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