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Phonon Structures and Raman Effect of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

Authors/others:Kuzmany, Hans
Abstract:This chapter reviews Raman scattering (RS) from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene as it relates to their phonon structure and to resonance excitation. Basic concepts of RS including double resonance and the phonon structures of the two systems are described. For the most important Raman lines a review is presented. In detail special Raman experiments are discussed such as scattering from double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with ultrahigh curvature, pressure and temperature effects, tip-enhanced RS (TERS), electronic RS, orientation-dependent RS and scattering from metal-semiconductor separated tubes. In the sections on graphene the importance of lineshape analysis from the 2D line is elucidated as it can be used for the determination of layer numbers in few-layer graphene (FLG). Other characteristic Raman features are reviewed as well. Some of them also exhibit a characteristic dependence on layer numbers. Such features are C lines and N lines and several combination tones. Eventually the I lines are discussed which exhibit a dependence on stacking order.
Number of pages:51
Date of publication:2014
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-098232-8.00006-1
Publication Type:Chapter
Host publication's title:Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene
Host publication's editors:Tanaka, K.Iijima, S.
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